English as a global language
English with the increasing flow of species, sections and bends are now firmly established in the global language. Currently, she talks like a second or foreign language media more than those who claim it as their first language. Now there are more than three English speakers for each language support, and the number of English speakers has been increasing daily. "Never before had no language that would speak more and more people as a second", – said David Crystal, author of "English as a global language." In the area where I grew up in south central Pennsylvania, there is an interesting variety of English spoken by the "Pennsylvania Dutch".
One difficult aspect of the English language in the counties of Dauphin, Lancaster and York, located in south central Pennsylvania, home to a large concentration of Amishav, menonitav and other "gandeytsav Pennsylvania" – a manipulation of grammatical elements of English. Here are a few examples of how to control the grammar and word order in everyday Dutch Pennsylvania. For the "foreigners", for those who are not with the & # 39 is a Pennsylvania Dutch, these expressions of daily speech can Var & # 39; iravatstsa from funny to amazing. Here's a look at just some of the many aspects of this version of the English language.
Winding grammatical forms
"Throw down the stairs dad hat".
Explanation: The Drop cap dad downstairs. (I do not care how old he is, do not dare to touch the Pope!)
"Go out and tie the dog loose, and do not forget to dim the lights."
This expression, in addition to the "German" verbalization uses tortuous grammar. Here the verb "Outen" means "vyvarochvatstsa". The adjective and noun used in reverse order from the other forms of standard English.
"The owner says he will pay me ten dollars a day, when I eat alone, and only five dollars, if it is me & # 39; eats".
Explanation: No, there is no cannibalism! Worker receives ten dollars a day to ensure their own food, but five dollars a day, when the owner must provide the employee meals. (Well, I'm glad that we clean it!)
"He had a pretty good man, is not it?"
Explanation: It is quite a nice person (supplier), is not it? (Form tag question)
Using specialized vocabulary
Adding specialized, but "local" language is also quite often done, as described in these examples.
"I have to put the candy in the clove?" ( "Tooth" – a paper bag.)
Apart from the fact that the father or grandfather of the patient, the child may say:
"Pop is not so good; it estsin gone and he did not look as good in person."
Talking about the difficulties of his son at school, his father could express the following feelings: "My son is dumb This is not something that he can not learn That he simply forgets after he learns it…"
If you do not speak with "Pennsylvania Dutch" in one of its many forms, they can just say about you: "You are not doing so good.
Speaking about a man who does not read aloud, for example, at a meeting or at school, people might say something like: "If he gets to read, he was confused."
Or about this fun little observation of the speech of another person: "Do not talk so fast, I think it's too much time."
Pennsylvania Dutch proverbs
Some interesting Pennsylvania Dutch proverbs include these suggestions:
"Kiss of wear, it is not necessary to cook"
"No woman can not be satisfied with less than seven years for cooking"
"Plump wife and a large barn never did anyone any harm"
"Anyone who has a secret, do not dare to tell his wife about it"
"It is too early to work, und too late"
In this region, "Keystone State", like Pennsylvania, manifestavali, this variety is often called "the British firm" by the Dutch citizens of Pennsylvania and the local "foreigners". Known for his frugal lifestyle and natural, deliciously cooked fresh meals, the Amish and other sects contribute to the development of tourism of the state. Hundreds of thousands of visitors come to try crafts, food and "original" language of the ill people. This is another of the many different varieties of English as a global language.
"If you come – exit" If you are in the area, come. You see, hear and experience the food and the Pennsylvania Dutch for themselves.