A Brief History of the US rules of murder


After our American independence a number of new States have taken legislative reforms to codify crimes murder. One of the earliest states became Pennsylvania. In 1794, this state passed a law degree murder, which divided the murder first degree murder and second-degree murder. The legislature of Pennsylvania has limited the punishment for the crime of murder, sentenced to death only for those crimes that occurred during the commission of arson, rape, robbery or burglary. The Charter further provides that all the killings in the state, except those that have been committed in the commission of a common criminal offenses set forth in their statutes, must be second-degree murder.

Later, the crime of abduction has been added to the list of specified crimes for killing purposes. Only first-degree murder was the reason for hanging. Pennsylvania status is not really formulated the rule of the murder he did not commit the criminal responsibility, and does not define the elements of murder. Instead, the status of the defined participation in specific crimes as an element of assessment, which strengthens the responsibility for the murder. Charter prescribed:

All the killings to be committed by a poison or a subscription or any other willful, deliberate and premeditated murder, either committed in the commission or attempted commission of arson, rape, robbery, or burglary, is considered first-degree murder; and all other types of homicide – a second-degree murder.

Under the influence of the statute implies that the murder during one of these crimes did not require deliberate, willful and premeditated murder. charter language does not imply that the simple cause of death at the time of any crime has always been a murder. This idea is much more in line with that proposed by Lord Hale in his work at the end of the seventeenth century, and is similar to Judge Stephen jury instructions in Serna: that the murder will only if the crime is known life-threatening and can cause death . The word "considered" in the charter follows from the fact that the judge or jury could weigh the facts of the case and decide whether the behavior of the defendant is accused of murder, for which the defendant can be hung.

Pennsylvania Charter has had a very big impact, forming the statutes reform of murders in two-thirds of the existing then states during the nineteenth century. Twelve states have enacted Pennsylvania assessment scheme with little or no modification; States that have adopted Pennsylvania's status as developed by the project were: Virginia in 1796, Kentucky from 1798 to 1801, Maryland in 1810 Louisiana since its recognition in the 1812-1855 biennium, Tennessee in 1829. Michigan in 1838, Arkansas in 1838, New Hampshire in 1842, Connecticut in 1846, Delaware in 1852, MA in 1858, and West Virginia, entered into an alliance with this status in 1863.

Nineteen states have adopted a slightly revised evaluation scheme. States that have adopted the status of Pennsylvania with a somewhat different assessment of the scheme were: Ohio in 1815 Maine in 1840, Alabama in 1841, Missouri in 1845. Iowa in 1851, Indiana in 1852 California in 1856. Texas in 1858 in New York City in 1860, Kansas (entry into the Union with the law in 1861), Oregon in 1864, Nevada (entry into the Union with the law in 1864), Nebraska in 1873, Montana (enter into an alliance with such a law in 1889), Washington (entry into an alliance with such a law in 1889) Idaho (entry into an alliance with such a law in 1890) Wyoming (entry into an alliance with such a law in 1890 g), North Carolina in 1893, and Utah (in entering the Union with a law of 1896).

Begin development in the Perche will COUNTRY

The first real murder statute regulations was passed in the state of Illinois in 1827 the Illinois state determined the murder of unlawful killings with obvious anger or acting with the knowledge that these actions will either probably result in death or great bodily harm and murder. The statute adds that "involuntary murder … in the commission of the illegal act, which, in the end, of course seeks to destroy human life, or done in the pursuit of malice …". and recognized the murder. "Again we see the influence of Lord Hailey, not Lord Cox Illinois Statute -. This Charter murder However, this is not a strict charter of responsibilities as it limits liability for unintentional killing during a crime that." seek to destroy a person's life ". this does not apply to all offenses. Hale thought that this murder will only if the crime is known life-threatening and can cause death.

In 1829, New Jersey adopted the charter included in the murder of "murder" in the commission of or attempt to commit, sodomy, rape, arson, robbery or burglary, or any wrongful act against the peace of the State, which is likely consequence could be bloodshed .. . "in the same year, New York passed the most stringent statutes, regulations murder. Their status is determined by the killing as murder" without any conception of death the person involved in the commission of crimes. "at the end of the nineteenth century, nineteen states have enacted so different from . Atuty crimes These states are: Illinois in 1827), New Jersey in 1829, Georgia in 1833 Mississippi in 1839 Alabama in 1841, Missouri in 1845 Wisconsin in 1849 ., California in 1850, Texas in 1857 Minnesota (entrance with the laws of the Union) in 1858) Nevada (entry into the Union with the law in 1864), Oregon in 1864. Nebraska in 1866, although the law cancels Florida in 1873 in Colorado in 1868 (part of the Union with the law in 1876), Idaho and Montana (both included in the Union with such laws in 1889) and Utah (entry into the Union with the law in 1896).

The twentieth century began with the fact that in most states, there are different ways of defining a crime, involving offenses: culpable for the killing, which provides for a crime, and crime; prediction of responsibility for the murder on the offense, which is sometimes called the listed offenses or before the & # 39; emergence of responsibility for the killing of any crime. During the twentieth century to the twenty-first century, we continue to see the US states determined by the same crime of murder. The growth of crime in the United States has more to do with the charter of the evaluation Pennsylvania murders in 1794 than with the views of Lord Coke in the XVII century, that the death caused by an illegal act, with the & # 39 is murder.

usually murder a crime in the United States was more expansive than in England, thanks to the combination of two concepts. Firstly, the concept of the crime itself and the way of determining the statute and two; this concept is questionable liability, which is used to bring to justice all the compatriots significant crimes committed by any of the conspirators. illegal agreement, which may have led to the killing of the rules in the United States.

Such a situation may arise if Bonnie and Clyde decided to rob a local liquor store, and they enlist brother Clyde Buck, to drive them to the store of alcoholic beverages, to stay on the street to look at the street and be their driver. Buck agrees. If during a robbery shop employee reaches for his gun under the counter that made Bonnie shoot him with a pistol, but it falls, and its bullets to kill innocent store patron, then Bonn, Clyde and Buck will contain fault and each one can be convicted of conspiracy to robbery , armed robbery and murder. Usually murder a crime has never been applied in the UK in this way.