Lost iron stove

Approaching historical maps, that clutter my desk, I noticed a handwritten reference to man-made monolithic structure, which is supposed to be 10 miles away from what is considered one of the most remote areas of Pennsylvania. Place deprived black top and there's a lot of bear, moose and rattlesnakes. It's hard to imagine that civilization touched the area in which few people might think today. region of steep mountains and steep ravines more, where one step is to drop one death; but there, in black and white, a mysterious link could be a researcher. It made me wonder: What could it be?

I was not looking for any one city, but the four towns that were built in the immediate vicinity, in the middle of the 19th century became the center of local coal and iron ore industry in the region north central Pennsylvania. This thriving community was built by miners, immigrants and unique personality, life history which left a wealth of legend about buried treasure and English mansion that was sitting out of place on the mountain among Pennsylvania's interior.

Reaveltan is in a very distant ten miles in the remote mountains of north central Pennsylvania. The nearest town, Quigley & Mills; itself is a point on a map Lock Haven twenty miles, perhaps the closest, better known to the community. I say that ten miles distant, because in the last ten miles of my journey to this remote region need another 45 minutes; half the time that I need to drive 50 miles from my house. The road that leads to the area almost impassable, such as rough and rugged as any that you would expect to find in the American Southwest. In winter, it is impossible to get to these places. No one comes here, apart from the occasional hunter. The story of Reaveltana left me alone; take pictures of the site and keep a record of where it has not. I like the complexity and the loneliness of the place; one that is untouched.

I arrived in Beechcreek, originally named Quigley & Mills, two hundred years ago. It is a small country town with a Mayberry atmosphere. Experience has taught me that the best place to learn the history – in the old inhabitants of the area, so I'm going for a snack to the nooks and crannies. This is exactly how I expected, wooden steps to the street, wooden steps leading through the arched Victorian doorway, a boarding house is still standing nearby. Doors creak open, knocking the bell, mounted on top. The old men in overalls and a blue-eyed houses for instant break talk, to look at the two strangers who had just entered. The silence is deafening, minutes delayed, but talks are resumed, we strategically occupy their seats closer to the table with four old people. Black-and-white photographs line the walls of the old city; they will serve as a good icebreaker, when I gather the nerve to talk to the gentlemen who are sitting in front of us.

At the moment, my observations on the structure itself, worn wooden floors, tin ceiling, hydrochloric barrel at the end of a dining counter, brass cash register and a floor safe in the corner. Only one middle-aged woman serves as hostess, waitress, cook and cashier; it takes our order and goes to the kitchen. One local resident walks behind the counter, taking a coffee cup and fills patrons … including ours. You can hear shyplyanne sausages, like the smell of home-cooked breakfast village soars out of the kitchen, a real collective farm breakfast.

Casual look throw us; perhaps because we are strangers, perhaps because of my zmyaovyh boots fedory and weapons. I'm waiting for someone from the older gentlemen will make contact with the eyes, it will not take much time, and this is my opportunity to strike up a conversation. "Pleasant place for you here; Bukkryk". After I introduced us, our conversation turns from a small conversation in the story; configure them easily. I believe that most people happy to talk about themselves and share what they know about their hometown and about his great uncle Charlie, who lived in the "cholera" and worked at the mine on the mountain. Our conversation allowed me to fill in the gaps in your notes, and people would like to hear what we will find.

The scenic beauty of this part of the country is second to none; deciduous woods which give way to open alkali, peat and beaver dams, and then gorgeous and dark wood, which overlaps almost the entire light; canopy in heavy hemlock diameter of four feet. Destruction of wild fire raging on the mountain in the 1890s, is no longer with the & # 39 is obvious, but the skepticism raised by local people that nothing will be left of the old cities and their frame housing. For a hundred years this has not been seen.

Gore clearly extends down from the top to Buchkryka ​​10 miles. I go to a place where ends black top, and turn on the dirt road that quickly becomes nothing more than ragged, muddy path. Goat track, as I like to call it. I'm going along a narrow path to an increase in height, sometimes with cliffs along one side and sharp stones protruding from the ground with spots of oil, indicating the failure of those who are less prepared. My companion, a new study says these strong distance that one might think that in our part of the country no longer exists. I look forward through the trees, to tell you about the signs of the last housing; The angles of 90 degrees, a line of trees, home vegetation, stone walls; nothing can be seen for miles.

In his pre-planning, I used what is today known as remote sensing Google Earth, which showed me that I must be close to the top of the mountain, where there is an open field. When we cleared the six-foot mud dirt trail, we came to a clearing. I immediately noticed a huge deal to me, an apple tree and a line of conifers that were too evenly spaced to products of nature; Most likely effort the Forest Service after the fire. To the surprise of my interlocutor, I said: "We're back!". His less-skilled eye can not occupy the same places, and he was amazed that even ever been here, I was able to put us in our first attempt to discover the city; others would have passed easily. I pulled out of the trails in the area of ​​the golden rod and stepped out of the truck. To my left in the forest to fifteen feet away it was a stone wall. I went in the opposite direction to spot lilies, unmistakable home-landing, which I knew he would be at home. I could see the road through the hole in the ground, probably wells.

Further, in a field with & # 39; it was partially filled with the foundation of the English mansion of John Revilya. I read that, General, as it was called Revil, divided his time between the construction of the village and the opening of coal mines. It was recorded that he built the good housing for miners and the big house for himself. He was an English-style, large and beautifully finished; central hall with staircase and vitravoy rack mahogany balusters; the rooms are large and deep vtsyapleny fireplaces with large chimneys and carved fireplace mantel. A wide porch adorned the front part, and it was located at an angle pointing down on the lane to Reaville saw how close his mouth. Artful post was located at the head of a walk near the porch. In the yard white picket fence wrapped with Lily and ivy. Spring House was sitting to the right of the lane where the road took place in Reveltan water from wells.

The very atmosphere of the place was a comfort, convenience and luxury; and just as luxurious as you could get in 1853 without internal bathrooms, running water and electricity. He reminds me, today we take a lot for granted. Not surprisingly, this interest in people from other valleys and attracted many visitors. C & # 39 appeared ridiculous in the wilderness. When visited Potters, Ashfield, sylvari and their friends from New York or Boston, the mansion was the site of celebrations and banquets, and in the basement – a purpose-built wine cellar, always equipped with the best English spirits and French wines, was the most popular.

When I switched on the field, apple again rushed into the eyes. Diameter greater than 30 inches, I can not remember when I saw one more. She grew up right in the middle of the second, a small foundation "L". Old, definitely, I thought that he may have started to rise immediately after a forest fire. When I was going out into the clearing, rabatsiny grouse, washed with a thorny bush with bright orange berries are usually planted as a landscaped, and just beyond it was a large hole in the basement, which consisted of an earthen berm and collapsed the foundation stones. I was sure that he had found the basis of the estate of John Revilya. Over grown and almost completely hidden from view high fern I imagined, like this, perhaps with & # 39 appeared 150 years ago; fence along the road, white columns, black bear, delivered on the front porch; arbitrariness, which the general loved to play among the guests; I was the last one. Rock outcrops have been found out; possible, the location of the cave, where Ivan hung venison; Another foundation across the street from the house. I was sitting on a root, when my companion continued to search for the relics, which would confirm our discovery.

a little respite allowed me to reflect on their environment. Pennsylvania History is full of colorful characters; John Revil not in the least among them, but to achieve it in the coal and iron industries as secluded as the city that bears his name in the hills above Mikhailov whine together with the other three; Stone Lady, Peacock and Eagleton; Each rose from Reavelton effort and John Reaville, working in the company Ashfield Coal.

Few written records to find information about these ghost towns. They have become real ghosts; just a footnote in history, only a small notation on the historical map; his name is not mentioned to those who live in the area, it simply ceased to exist.

It's an incredible feeling when you discover a new place and you know what, perhaps, the first time in 150 years, someone got carried away and raised the name of the city and its people who have been completely forgotten. Reyviltana story – a story of John Revilya face industrious person, whose legacy has left a history of these cities, which are arranged in terms of our village. Cities – is the story of seven & # 39; ads, and their struggle as pioneers on the border; businesses that are built from the bad, and the other pioneers who later joined the prosperity, creating and building the city on the basis of a brighter future.

Reyviltan unique in that it was founded in 1853 and is almost completely gone in 1878 along with her sisters Rock Cabin, peacocks and Eagleton. This case study on the impact of the boom and the industrialization that gave rise to the city, their industry and those that put him out of the woods. The study of inheritance and the legend, which allowed him to be seen and not entirely lost in history as manor and a smaller farm. Community Reyviltana, which is not as old as the sites that we study in classical archeology, old for Pennsylvania, and yet, it is a complicated story to tell about the people who lived there, how they lived and the legacy they left behind themselves.

John Revil emigrated from Nottingham, England, in America, approximately in 1843, settling in New York, and though coal mining profession has gained a greater portion of their savings sixty acre farm near Amagansetta, Long Island, to try his hand at farming. Tired of this undertaking, Revil traveled west through Pennsylvania in the region, where the company "Harry and Ashfield" opening new coal mines. Revil was a tough, hard-working man. He had come to seek his fortune, and fell into the company Potter and Ashfield. They were legal problems with one of the eastern mine, which was as follows: if it is left unattended, the mine may require someone else. John Revil soon went to the county Suika, anthracite coal Pennsylvania, where he had to stay in the mine, where the company "Harry and Ashfield" working illegally and that which the sheriff tried to shut down if they never leave it unattended even for a day . About 8 months Ryvil lived in isolation in the mine, and then Potter and Ashfield owned it because of adverse possession, thus saving costly sum of $ 1,500 000. As a reward for his service, John Revil was named superintendent of mines in the region over the Tangaskoatak Bukkrykam It was introduced a blank check and told to open a coal mine in the mountains in the spring of 1852, where bituminous coal were recently discovered.

Mines were committed before 1854, holes were driven into the hole, and coal is happy. Ten miners, mostly foreigners this kind, many children and their families were living in long rows of houses.

Reyviltan covered about 3,600 hectares. If you include his Sister, this will increase to ten square miles. Reveltan called their city in his name, although initially was Reyvillem. Peacock was named coal color, which was brightly colored brilliance. Rock Cabin gets its name for obvious reasons, as Eagleton called the name of the Bald eagle at the main Indian ruler Seneca. Four cities, hundreds of homes, shops, schools, coal and iron mines, railways, a sawmill and a monolithic structure; a huge iron stove was built just a few years.

It is in the first place Eagleton coal strike in Pennsylvania, and John Revil was the man who did this. Revil, as we know, was a cruel boss. In 1856 the operation was at the peak of the profit, and the men on the & # 39; joined together to demand more money and better treatment. They went on strike, wore guns and threatening to become tough. John Revil sent a trusted employee in Lock Haven to bring back the sheriff John W. Smith, who returned with a group of twenty armed men. Smith calmed things and stopped the strike after about three days.

Reyviltan provide centralized workplace for the early settlers of the region; coal is in great demand, and in the mountain region it was a lot. Reaville labor force consisted mainly of English, Scottish and German immigrants. Additional cities arose in the surrounding areas of natural resources, because it meant a stable job; albeit difficult, and the opportunity to earn a salary and have family & # 39; S. It was opened several drift, and every day the miners climbed into the ground by four pedestrian tunnels to get a black rock, which is looking for the railroad, manufacturing and iron industry. It still needs to be used to heat your home, except for the rich in the cities. The country was rich in wood and cheap, and coal – a commodity.

I walked the earth, representing his features on my cape; first house foundation in the form of "L", the spring house, a well, the mysteries and stables. Then, in the wake of a powder house, mine office, homes of miners and the mines themselves, which are now seen as the destroyed test, where you can stand and look along the ground for the large holes themselves destroyed coal mines. I told his interlocutor, not to go on the ground between the holes of the shell which can give way at any moment.

Many mines were dug up and headed to the north-south direction. I stopped to imagine how men with blackened faces dig under the ground, set the powder charges, clear the mine before the explosion blew up a few tons of coal, and then returned to the shaft, cutting off its roof wooden beams and zashturhovvayuchy coal wagons, which then they have been extracted from the ground by horses up the hill to the narrow-gauge railway cars, where he was sent down the mountain to Lock Haven and loaded onto barges that are waiting in the recently completed canal and Pennsylvania will be shipped to points further east. I wondered danger; shaft movement and seven & # 39; families who have lived here.

child labor laws did not exist at the time; I imagined eight, nine and ten year old boy, who were digging wet from seepage from the blackened skin that will not be clean and sullen eyes peering min; forced labor, where life does not matter, as long as John Ryvil sitting in his English mansion, eating oysters and sipped wonderful wine; extremes of life.

I know about Revilya in the corner stone of the foundation that once supported his extravagant home, we found a glass of liqueur glasses of wine and a bottle of bitter, blue and white porcelain, oyster shells and ceramic pipes. Although from the frame is nothing left, it was a two-story affair with an expansive front porch. We see an expensive brick and cut stone, which filled them with earth. There I discovered fragments of pottery, error-free green glass bottle of excellent French and more oyster shells; apparently, he loved them; expensive delicacies from the ocean.

Communicating with the gentlemen at dinner, I learned that in the house, as we know, there is a wine cellar and a cave in the back of the property, where the meat is hung for aging, to create the best taste. Revil had the best of everything and once entertained the Princess of Spain. While two hundred feet from them miners lived in small 3-4 room houses built on poles, which created a miserable life; die at a young age. Жыццё для гэтых людзей было цяжкім, а праца была небяспечнай. Калі мы размаўлялі, я даведаўся, што Джон любіў алкаголь і тытунь. Калі ён прыязджаў у горад, у карчме яго выпівалі, і ён быў удзельнікам жыцця. Гэта было пацверджана колькасцю бурштынавага шкла, адзначаным, як горкія нарыхтоўкі з задняга двара таямніцы, а таксама прыгожыя аскепкі дарагога ганчарнага посуду і іншай шкляной посуду і больш гліняных тытунёвых шынкоў.

Таемныя раскопкі знаходзяцца ўверсе майго спісу, які выкарыстоўваецца для вызначэння ладу жыцця былых жыхароў дома; асабняк Рэйвілтана не адрозніваўся б. Чалавек звычайна ляжыць у тыле дома і ўніз. У гэтым паказана пацверджанне папярэдняга выкопвання, паколькі бруд вакол яго быў натоўп змешаны са зламаным шклом, не пакідаючы нічога ў кантэксце. На шчасце, мы ўжо ведалі ўзрост. Па меры таго, як я прасеяла бруд, стала відавочна, што паляўнічы за бутэлькамі быў там яшчэ пэўны час, пра што сведчыць 1970-я гады, Pepsi можа аднавіцца на глыбіні каля 4 футаў. Тым не менш іх адпусцілі ў пошуках толькі бутэлек, якія засталіся цэлымі пасля 125 гадоў, а мяне цікавіла ўсё астатняе. Шкло было раскідана па зямлі. У хуткім часе пачалі з'яўляцца больш разбітыя керамічныя вырабы і шкло, якія былі груба класіфікаваны па тыпу шкла і колеру альбо ўпрыгажэнні, калі мы вымалі яго з лункі ў зямлі. Некалькі жалезных рэліквій таксама выявіліся. Наша выздараўленне дазволіла нам аднавіць цэлыя кавалкі Кітая; два плыні блакітнага мяса з адпаведнай талеркай для вячэры, страва з белай глазураванай стравай, гаршчок з гаршчкамі, бутэлькі, сметанковы крэм, гліняны гарлач, камерны гаршчок, глобусы з алеем, гліняныя трубы, якія паліў сам Джон. Гэта было сапраўдным бонансам разбітага ганчарства, які забяспечыў бы задавальненне зімой, калі мы прыбіралі, захоўвалі і аднаўлялі жыццёвую і сацыяльную атмасферу, якая існавала ў Рэйвілтане за сто гадоў да таго, як я нават нарадзіўся. Яшчэ так павольна мы ўгаворвалі жыццё назад у Рэвіль. Яны зноў апынуліся ў цэнтры ўвагі; жыццё партыі.

Назад у гарадской прамысловасці пашыралася, жалезная шахта была адкрыта на схіле пагорка, крыху над ручаем Тангакоотак. У лесе была пабудавана печ разам з піларамай, вадой і школай. Я быў перакананы, што маналітная структура, на якую спасылаецца мая карта, павінна быць жалезнай печчу, таму мы пачалі шукаць яе праз лес. Наш след стаў непраходным; 3 футы глыбокіх каляін, напоўненых вадой, прымусілі нас адмовіцца ад аўтамабіля і працягваць пешшу. Мая карта раёна 1872 года акрэсліла паток як "печ". Адзінае, што я даведаўся, – гэта тое, што назвы месцаў звычайна супадаюць з гісторыяй; таму мы накіраваліся ў гэтым кірунку, праходзячы па пэндзлях і густым падлеску, пакуль не падышлі да добра зношанай сцежкі. Навес балігалову моцна вісеў над галавой, у выніку чаго ў лесе здавалася, быццам бы змярканне. Я не ўяўляў, наколькі далёкая можа быць печ і нават калі яна яшчэ існуе; Часта камяні з канструкцый перастаўляюць у наступныя гады. Мы рушылі пад падстрэшкам масіўных балігаловаў на адлегласць, дзе даліна паглыбілася, і дрэвы амаль не перакрывалі ўсё святло. Я прыгнуўся да стромкага схілу і, стоячы на ​​прорве, з мэтай агляду даліны я паглядзеў уверх, каб убачыць масіўную каменную канструкцыю вышынёй 45 футаў і квадрат на 30 футаў на супрацьлеглым узгорку; як старажытная піраміда, якая стаіць у расколінай даліне, і сонечнае святло цячэ па ёй, нібы пасланае неба. Ілюзія стварыла выдатны досвед, як быццам я адзін быў прызначаны знайсці структуру. Я падказаў суразмоўцу да краю скалы, але ва ўсёй красе ён не мог убачыць печы, бо ляжыць замаскіраваны сярод балігалоў, пазелянеў у колеры. Праз некалькі імгненняў ён зразумеў, у чым маё хваляванне.

Печ стаіць больш за 45 футаў у вышыню і амаль роўная мера ў даўжыню і шырыню прыналежнай каменнай канструкцыі, узятай разам з жалезнымі крыжамі і апорамі з дрэва. Чатыры аркі, па адной з бакоў, вядуць у зоны, дзе расплаўленае жалеза паступае ў формы для зліткаў і полых вырабаў. Праца труб для паветра з сильфона відавочная. Гэта традыцыйная верхняя печ.

Мы скаціліся ўніз па стромкім схіле і, перасекшы паток, былі ашаломлены велізарнай каменнай структурай, калі сонечнае святло прабівалася праз лістоту, ззяючы на ​​печы; відовішча. Некалькі іншых падмуркаў ляжалі раскіданыя па лясах у падтрымку плаўкі.

Жалезная руда добрага якасці існуе ў рэгіёне Тангакоотак і ў 1857 г. вугальная кампанія Тангаскаотак; сапраўдная назва аперацыі ў Рэйвілтане ўзводзіла печ і вырабляла жалеза, але прыпыненне дзеянняў адбылося неўзабаве пасля таго, як гэта адбывалася з здабычай вугалю, але ўсё ж было зроблена дастаткова, каб паказаць той факт, што існавала вялікая колькасць руды, з якой можна было б павінна быць зроблена добрая якасць жалеза. Мне ўдалося знайсці рэшткі запасу коксу, а таксама вапняка, прылеглага да печы, якія выкарыстоўваліся для атрымання дастатковага цяпла, каб выплавіць жалеза. Жалеза плавіцца пры тэмпературы каля 3000 градусаў па Фарэнгейце, таму печ павінна была заставацца ў выбуху 24 гадзіны ў суткі, каб яна не астыла і для аднаўлення тэмпературы спатрэбілася 2-3 тоны коксу. Да сярэдзіны дзевятнаццатага стагоддзя тэндэнцыя была выкарыстоўваць кокс замест драўнянага вугалю, гарачы выбух замест халоднага, пара для электраэнергіі замест вадзяных колаў і сталёвы корпус, агонь з каменю, абкладзеных цэглай.

Гэтая печ дазваляе нам убачыць пераход у тэхналогіі дня. Кокс быў выкарыстаны, аднак вадзяное кола, якое рухаецца механічным мехам, яшчэ не дзейнічала. Часткова выкарыстоўвалася вогнетрывальная камень, але разам з каменным стэкам, абкружаным пяшчанай глінай паміж штабелем і самой каменнай печчу. У раннія гады выбух прыводзіўся ў дзеянне вадой, круцячы колы, якія, у сваю чаргу, альбо працавалі ў мяша (раннія печы), альбо выштурхоўвалі поршні ўнутр і з труб, каб стварыць выбух паветра. Я мяркую, што ў печы Рэйлтана выкарыстоўваліся трубныя поршні з-за доўгага плоскага падмурка, які знаходзіцца справа ад печы. Калі выкарыстанне мяха было спынена каля 1820 г., былі выкарыстаны дзве пары драўляных труб. Кожная пара складалася з адной трубкі ўнутры іншай з прыдатнымі скуранымі пракладкамі. Паколькі ўнутраная трубка адной пары спускалася і ўсмоктвала паветра, унутраная труба другой пары паднімалася і сціскала паветра. Пры дапамозе скураных кранаў рэгуляваўся паток паветра ў акварыум. Спалучэнне паветра, якое паступае ў вугаль коксу, стварала экстрэмальныя тэмпературы, неабходныя для расплаўлення жалезнай руды.

Хоць для аперацый на даменнай печы, напэўна, спатрэбілася пятнаццаць-дваццаць чалавек кругласутачна, іншыя работы, звязаныя з печчу, такія як нарэзка дроў, вывазка коксу і вапняка, збор прадуктаў харчавання для служачых і коней, вываз руды і чыгуну, павялічылася колькасць рабочых да шасцідзесяці да васьмідзесяці.

Цвёрдыя спіртныя напоі карысталіся вялікім попытам у рабочых. Гэта было амаль гэтак жа неабходна, як ежа ці каля гэтага, здаецца. Паколькі большасць печаў пабудавана далёка ад гарадоў, прылеглых да сыравіны і электраэнергіі, магчымасці для адпачынку практычна не было; і ў выніку мужчыны звяртаюцца да ўжывання алкаголю як спосабу бавіць свой вольны час.

Печ пабудавана побач з узгоркам, які мае роўную плошчу на тым жа ўзвышэнні, што і верхняя частка печы. Матэрыялы былі дастаўлены ў гэтую лаву для залівання ў печ. Для гэтага выкарыстоўваўся мост паміж верхняй часткай штабеля і "лаўкай". Мой інстынкт загадаў мне паглядзець пад тым мостам, дзе можна было б знайсці ўзоры паліва, якое выкарыстоўвалася для абпалу печы. Вядома, я знайшоў кокс і вапняк, якія я шукаў. Мой суразмоўца размясціў каровіны звон на суседняй зямлі, хаця я мяркую, што яго ўжывалі на кані альбо муле, які вывозіў сыравіну.

Крыху над печчу размясціліся руіны трох будынкаў; хутчэй за ўсё, двух'ярусныя дамы для работнікаў змены, неабходныя для працы печы кругласутачна. Уніз па сцежцы ў бок крыка Тангаскоотак праверка жалезнай шахты размяшчалася на верхняй частцы пагорка, а яго рухнуты вал ідзе ўніз па схіле. Далей па цячэнні знаходзіліся рэшткі піларамы на вадзе. Плошча засыпана жалезам, дзындрамі і шлакам. У гэтым раёне можна сустрэць круглыя ​​кавалкі жалеза, якія нагадваюць метэарыты.

Па ўсёй даліне, адкуль мы прыйшлі, і на ўзгорку мы адкрылі падмурак Дома жалезных майстроў. Значна большы дом, чым дома рабочых, яшчэ меншы, чым генерал Рэвіль. У яго ўваходзілі, хутчэй за ўсё, 6-7 пакояў з пярэднімі і заднімі дзвярыма, шклопакетамі і вясковай хаткай ззаду дома. Жалезны майстар кіраваў печчу і саступаў толькі самому Джону Рывілу. Пакуль мне яшчэ трэба высветліць спецыфіку гэтага чалавека, ён, несумненна, прыехаў з Еўропы з вопытам работы ў печы.

Джон Рэвіль і яго жонка жылі шчасліва і самотна ў сваім асабняку, пакуль ён не памёр ад сардэчнай хваробы, якая праявілася ў падагрычным і вадзяністым стане, дваццаць другога жніўня 1876 года, ва ўзросце сямідзесяці першага года і была пахавана з масонскімі Абрады.

Праз год, менш за сем дзён, ягоная жонка Елісаба, узрост шасцідзесяці сямі з паловай гадоў, памерла ў дзяржаўнай бальніцы ў Данвіле і ніколі не была той самай жанчынай пасля смерці мужа. Вал з белага мармуру, вышынёй восем з паловай футаў, стаіць каля іх магіл на гарадскіх могілках у Лок-Хейвен.

Пасля іх смерці пачаліся чуткі, што Рэвіль пахаваў мяшкі з грашыма ў сутарэннях свайго асабняка пад бруднай падлогай.

Праз некаторы час у асабняку Рэвіль з'явіўся чалавек. Выказвалася здагадка, што ён супрацоўнік бальніцы, якому пані Рэйвіл раскрыла сакрэт свайго мужа. У суткі ён заставаўся сам-насам, і з яго праганялі цікаўных лесаводаў. Пануры адказ адштурхваўся ад прывітання. Тады гэтага чалавека больш не бачылі. Пазней наведвальнікі выявілі, што падлога склепа выкапана, вінны склеп знесены, а каменныя падмуркі ў многіх месцах зняты. Пра тое, што ў старога генерала было схавана золата, калі ён памёр, ягоная жонка натуральна ведала.

Чыгунка была разарвана, і сотні будынкаў засталіся ў разбурэнні і распадзе. Пазней лясныя пажары паглыналі ўсе іх сляды, і сёння нічога, акрамя некалькіх камянёў падмурка і зялёных насаджэнняў, адзначаюць там, дзе раней стаяла вёска, і нават іх мала.

Закінутая печ, якую пабудаваў Джон Рывіл і дзеля якой непатрэбна спаліў тысячу тон драўнянага вугалю, – гэта адзіная збудаванне сотняў, якія ўзводзяцца сёння ў даліне, якая хутка вяртаецца да сваёй першароднай дзікасці. Мох пакрыты, каменныя сцены на беразе Печы бягуць, падобна на вежу і руіны старога ангельскага замка, які зараз руйнуецца сам.

How to find the best price for long-term care insurance in Pennsylvania

Although long-term care insurance is not a necessity in everyone's life, it is vital for many people. With age, people are faced with many different health conditions, resulting in a need for additional, daily care. For people who have long-term care insurance plan, it is important for them to live comfortably, and if necessary help. In Pennsylvania, when a person has used health, may have to wait up to six months before the insurance company will sign a policy to them. This is a good reminder of how important it is to apply early to ensure effective coverage when it is really needed.

In addition to the proper cover the majority of people concerned about the impact of premiums on long-term care in their bank account. By paying a small wealth of insurance that you will never be able to use it like everyone. Therefore, a good idea to try to ensure the lowest quotation policy that covers the basics.

One great way that many couples can find a low rate on long-term health insurance, then buy a joint policy. Policy provides coverage of both parties in the event that one or other or both of the needed long-term care. One of the most important reasons for a couple who have to consider this type of joint policy, is that in some cases, when one spouse dies after the policy has been implemented for several years, remaining a reward for surviving spouses are automatically covered. It can be a godsend for someone who has just lost her husband and does not have the resources needed for further payment of premiums. Anyone who wants to cover with the husband and wife must accurately weigh the benefits of one of these plans.

Your form of speech affect the efficiency of sales

speech material impact on sales

Oriental accents, like the ones being talked about New Yorkers tend to speak very quickly. South attraction, as well as those spoken by people from the South, is much slower. And if you are talking with the midfielder, the speech circuit is very different. How do these different accents, speech patterns and speed of speech affect the sales efforts and telemarketyngu?

There is a lot of evidence that the speed of speech and accents affect sales. The consultant tried to analyze how accents and speaking rate influence both the sale for many years, and for consulting sales. This is not conclusive, but the leading marketing agencies agree that the focus and speed of speech really affect the sales figures.

Many companies like to hire people with the voices on the radio, hoping that voice quality will affect the efficiency of sales. Many companies make the speech test in hiring individuals who will constantly interact with other people. It seems that "theater" voice lowers resistance.

The importance of the speed of speech

Why the frequency of speech is important? Let's examine the reasons. Calls from sales and calls to telemarkety almost always with a & # 39 are an obstacle. People go to dinner or watch a movie on TV. Perspective, of course, do not expect a call TSR. While our brains when it focuses, can understand 600 words per minute, the brain may need five to ten seconds to adjust to the new speed of speech agent. Just need the brain a few seconds to gather the speed of speech, accent and a message to communicate.

At linebacker, who speaks at a speed of 170 words per minute (the WPM), there will be problems in communication (at the beginning) of the New yorkchanami who speak 240 words per minute (WPM). What does it mean? This means that they missed or did not understand the agent's name, company, and, perhaps, the main purpose of the call.

Why do you think that many large service bureau telemarketav travel to Omaha Nebraska to create your call center? Cause:

  • In the middle of America's few accents
  • their speech is moderate in comparison with the southerners and New Yorkers

The ideal rate of speech – 180 verbal tests

Pennsylvania Bell Company measured the speed of speech, holding the test of 180 words to measure it. This test will help teach your agents speak with a maximum speed of speech. It works by setting the timing of your agents, while they read the test: too long than one minute; less than a minute too soon. Here are 180 words of Pennsylvania Bell Company:

Most experts agree that the ideal speech rate is one hundred eighty to two hundred words per minute. With this speed, people who listen to you, will be able to hear and understand what you are saying. In the United States there are different speech patterns, with & # 39 are the product of geographic areas. In the north-eastern part of the country people speak faster than others, while people from the southern states speak slower than ideal. However, people in the countries of the Midwest, as a rule, will say a hundred and eighty. To test yourself, look at the start and end time. To do this, use your other hand hours. If you read this statement in less than one minute, you're talking too fast and should make an effort to slow down. But if you read this statement more than a minute, you talk too slow and should try to talk faster when talking on the phone.

How to improve the work of agents

Take one of their scenarios and determine the first 180 words. Try to keep your agents tried to read them in one minute. If you mark the ten second intervals, this will help you to identify speech patterns and habits, both good and bad, to your agents. After identification, you can begin the process of correcting bad habits, and underscores the good. Another useful suggestion – a check over the phone or in front of other agents.

Colonizer William Penn affects the Pennsylvania and Delaware

For registration of America needed a variety of people. Most of them were humble people, led by such strong middle class, as Captain John Smith and John Rolfe of Virginia, a state Miles and William Bradford of Plymouth.

No single founder of the colony did not contribute to more fruitful British men and women in achieving the goal of a better life in America than William Penn

William Penn Quakers

William Penn was a highly educated aristocrat, who studied at Oxford, son of a British admiral, Sir William Penn. He easily won the friendship and steady influence in high places. William Penn was born in the Church of England, but Thomas Loe, Quaker preacher, was transformed into the Quakers.

As Quakers, Peng quickly became a strong supporter of freedom of conscience, preached and wrote, to promote the teachings of the Quakers and was instrumental in the adoption of the doctrines of political freedom, with the & # 39; being an opponent of the economic oppression of the many.

Due to legal training in Lincoln, it was a successful defender of the security and property of the British. William Penn was a man without compromises. While in prison for his religious beliefs, he wrote: "No cross, no crown," which laid out many principles, which the Americans called American way of life.

Penn interest in America

At the age of thirty-three years old Peng first became interested in America, formed and developed their great conviction. He was granted the opportunity to put them into practice when he became one of the trustees of the property of West New Jersey management, which the company acquired friends as a safe haven for its members.

In 1677 Berlingtan was founded by charter "Laws, concessions and agreements" drawn up by William Penn, guaranteeing freedom of religion, arguing that "neither the people nor the number of people on Earth, there is no power and authority" male management "At the first opportunity Peng He recorded his liberalism in the basic law and implement it in the new society.

William Penn affects the Pennsylvania and Delaware

In 1681, King Charles II of England paid a long-standing debt to Admiral Pen, handing his son William huge plot of land to the north of Maryland. Peng called his Pennsylvania in honor of his father. The following year, the Duke of York gave him a territory known as the Delaware.

Peng is now able to develop all of its socio-political ideas, people of all faiths could peacefully live and worship there, where big land owners, he and a small farm can live with the same rights in the same part of the Government, which he published in 1682 "that any government free people, in which the laws and the people with the & # 39 is a party to these laws." History tells us that it worked. Pennsylvania and Delaware – results.

William Penn did not spend a lot of time in America, less than four years was in the colonies, but the wonderful things he has made for them. In 1682 he moved to the colony and began to build a beautiful estate in Delaware over Bristol who called Penbery. Although he remained in the colonies only twenty-two months, he said, both from Philadelphia to find a durable and permanent institution, to attract them, skillful advertising, thousands of colonists from Holland, Ireland and England, and the conclusion of the last peace with the Indians.

Peng returned to prison in one thousand six hundred ninety-nine to 1701 and gave them a more liberal charter. This act completed the car & # 39; career constructive colonizer.

William Pena influence on America was the chief. He opened an important role in the creation of Pennsylvania and Delaware. He saw the humble people were able to start a new life under favorable conditions; he preached and practiced religious freedom; He was a great humanitarian in inhuman era, and his ideals helped to shape the democracy that we have today in America.

Winery Brukmir – Pennsylvania – Part I

From the moment we saw an old barn in 1866, Brenda and I knew that we were treated to a feast in Brukmerskim winery in Belleville, Pennsylvania. Owners Cheryl and Ed Glick happy to share some stories wineries and other interesting facts with us. Previous owners Susan and Donald Chapman put the first three hectares of vines on the farm 138 acres in 1981. First winery was opened in 1984 and since then has been a device for route 655.

In 1995, Sheryl Glick went to work in Chempans to the winery. In 1999, Ed joined the staff of the winery and started to learn the wine making process. If Chempmans decided to sell the winery Gliks was there to buy it and continue the great tradition Brukmera. Today Gliks grows 10 hectares of grapes which include French hybrid varieties as Chellois, Vidal, Seyval and Chambourcin. They range from 35% to 40% of the grapes, which is 13,000 gallons of wine, which Brukmer produces each year. The remaining grapes comes from other manufacturers Pennsylvania. Most wines Brukmera fermented in steel tanks, although some aged in oak barrels. filling line can handle 150 to 200 bottles per hour, and the entire bottling process takes about three months a year.

Gliks has the ability and the desire to expand the vineyard and winery to 20,000 gallons per year. When I asked them about the impact of the current economic crisis on the sale, they said that no effect was not. People think the wine is relatively inexpensive luxury and do not abandon it. It also makes a great gift that will not break the budget. In fact, Gliks told me that sales in 2008 actually increased in 2007. There are a few things that Cheryl and Ed would like to change in Pennsylvania law regulating the sale of wine. Under current law, Brookmere can sell their wine in only five state liquor stores in a small radius of the winery. They would like to see the number and range widened. In addition, they want so that they can deliver the wine to other states. They did not have any problems, as the agreement was mutual, and wineries in other states could supply in Pennsylvania. According to Ed, "we are not large enough to harm them, and they are not large enough to harm us."

Pennsylvania – Football in American high schools, representing raider Ridley

First of all, my hat goes to every coach, teacher, administrator and interested parties who contributed to the student-athlete in the past and those who continue to participate in the lives of student athletes and communities in America. The time and effort invested in training, huge in terms of X and O, and most importantly, the personal life of the student athlete associated with people, places and situations. Coaches do with & # 39 are examples to follow and influence the lives of the players. Should Kuchas LIVES!

Football in Pennsylvania is known as one of the greatest traditions in America. Players such as Dan Marino and Jim Kelly, Joe Montana and dozens of other well-known players have created themselves, staff and others as the "cradle" and the foundation of the American middle school football. Moreover, Pennsylvania trainers, such as Cary (Berwick) Bernat (J. Owen. Roberts). Waller (Ridley) Petina (CBWest) etc. … imagine what the leadership of the student athletes should be on the field. I personally experienced coach Hank Bernat more than one way, and believe me, he is the coach! These motivational, inspirational, dedicated and highly protected teachers sought to make sure that the student-athlete has successfully experienced education and society. Coaches Penn & # 39; s Woods (PA), make sure that each player understands the realities of life, and to become an active citizen in America, you must reverse. The greatest coach around the round of Pennsylvania, of which I told people, and I witnessed the leadership, and stressing that the mentality carefully taken care of, was the only Jerry Sandusky. It is necessary to say more?

In many failures, as well as made the football program at the secondary school of the 21st century, educators and trainers under pressure to get a positive win results padarvayuchy or acquiring real support, training and education in the school field. The question remains, what is the purpose of a coach? He uses student athlete as a pawn for his future success, or he takes care of the students first? This is a deeply adab & # 39; etsya on the integrity of its mission and, most importantly, the student-athlete! This environment can create a culture of inefficiency and poor production values ​​within the school community and penetrates into society and American society. This negative domino effect with the & # 39 is the end result not only in loss of life of life, but also makes the school environment of obsolete institution in terms of sports and other social aspects.


Redlidery, as a reminder, not the entry, continue to be a team of Pennsylvania and one of the traditional American football teams. Created in 1934, the football program Ridley reached the mark of 500 "30 's faster than any other program in the country! In addition, as evidence of their tradition and success, raiders "Ridley" have the best winning percentage in Pennsylvania, as well as set the highest winning percentage in the country – 25 percent! Traditional school community is maintained and supported by all stakeholders, including students, teachers, administrators and prominent community "blue collar." Fans who are made up of the traditional family & # 39; and the other, which are not new to society, acquire a work ethic and a "city blue collar" and is dedicated to the students, the community, the coaches and the team. Such action is a few have not heard in many school communities in various educational fields of secondary school. This is what makes Ridley congregation winner in the geographical area (Philadelphia), it is not just a tradition of football, but also the basis of history and the birthplace of America (Declaration of Independence).

Stakeholders in American high schools and post-secondary education should primarily emphasize the success of the student-athlete, and the money, fame, and a drive to succeed can become canceled, if it was intended! Take care of the student-athlete! Just ask these coaches and motivators of higher education, as Joe pattern, Jerry Sandusky, Jackie Sherry, Steve Spoor & # 39; er, Bobby Bovden,, R.C. Slakum Don Nelen Cause Shinbekler, Tom Osborne, Paul Bryant and many others who continue to either motivate and teach student-athlete to be strong productive citizens in the field and outside the field. Hail to the raiders RIDLEY!

Tutoring services in Idaho and Pennsylvania

Tutorials are offered to students as an additional training places for further training. Approach & # 39 is more intimate for students to better understand the lessons. In Idaho and Pennsylvania have a lot of training centers, and we will list several of them.

Tutoring services in Idaho

Huntington Learning Center
This training center is designed to optimize the effective training and ensure the success of your children. This center provides your children the type of attention to each other, which it requires to catch up with their items faster. Certified and highly qualified tutors do more to fill the children's knowledge. Workspace and desk training center laid out carefully to ensure a perfect blend of privacy and personalized attention to their studies.

Huntington offers children between the ages of 5 and 17 textbooks in reading, writing, mathematics, fonit, vocabulary, test preparation, preparation for entrance exams in high school. The center is located at: # 13373 West Chinden Avenue, Eagle, ID.

Classic books Schola
The school is designed for students who wish to devote themselves to the study of rigorous training in the liberal arts before entering the college, married and stay at work. Institution gives living textbooks for the Internet for such things as classical Christian liberal arts, great books on history and literature, as well as classical languages ​​and rhetoric. Schola Tutorials on the Internet – is a chat and live audio. The meeting takes 2 hours once a week. It is located at number 1690 Rock Creek Road Potlatch, ID.

Sylvan Learning Center
This learning center – a leading provider of private tuition in North America for children aged up to 12-th grade. The center provides individual tutoring program for students of all skill levels and age of each subject, including the preparation for the test. In the center of respectful tutors indyvidualizuyutstsa learning plans that build habits, attitudes and skills of students who want to succeed in life and in school. Subjects they teach – is mathematics, writing, reading, homework, study skills, preparation for testing and preparation for the SAT or ACT. Full address of the center – № 1810 East Shneyldmiler Avenue Post, ID.

Tutoring in Pennsylvania

Club Z In-Home Tutoring
This tutoring institution – the world's largest one-on-one training program. Tutoring Club Z helped students improve their test scores, evaluation, to build academic confidence in themselves, to master the skills of productive training and achieve full potential. It has about 400 franshyzavanyh places around the world and a variety of subjects tutoring.

training topics include reading, science, math, history, foreign languages, learning skills and testing of the standard preparation of the preliminary assessment, for example, SAT, ACT, and music lessons. Full franshyzavany address in Pennsylvania – is number 1 E Hanover Street Newtown, Pennsylvania.

Training center points of knowledge
This training center provides individual approach to tutoring on basic skills. The center has a tutoring program, such as individual training mentoring, evaluation of diagnostic skills and effective motivational systems that build students' skills and confidence to succeed in school, training center or in life. Tutoring services include reading, math, writing programs and homework. Full address of the center – 2316 Garrett Road Drexel Hill, Pennsylvania.

Keystone Learning Center, Inc.
This company provides individual instruction based on the student's unique learning style. They make every student successful in obtaining a high school diploma. The company also has 2 tutoring services for high school students and high school students.

tutoring services for high school students include math, science, English and art, while tutoring subjects in high school include math, science, English and social studies.

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and the neighborhood – the battlefield, Hannover and the country bear

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, was the site of one of the most famous battles of the Civil War. The battle lasted three days, and the residual effects of a lifetime. It was a high water mark for the confederate army. Backing up in the back seat shows a lot of mistakes on the part of the Confederation generals who brought victory to the Union. Spend at least three days, visiting this historic site. Every day restore the battle. Do not forget to make a trip on the Ranger. They are educational.

We drove three miles to the center of national parks to learn about graphics reynzherskih tours. When we arrived, one was going to start at the National Cemetery across the street from the LCD on the cemetery hill. This is the height to which the Allied forces retreated after July 1 have been sent. Here it is buried many Allies killed in the three-day battle and the subsequent wars. There are also 19 November 1863 Edward Everett delivered a two-hour speech, tremor, dedicating the cemetery. This was followed by a few remarks of President Lincoln, which lasted only a couple of minutes.

Today we started to make a car tour of the battle. We wanted to follow the three days. We started in the north-west of the city in the city of McPherson. Here cavalry Buford with & # 39; went off and spent the CSA held in the city for two hours until Union infantry arrived on the scene. Many Allied troops were killed in the context of the railway, which was then under construction. It was like a funnel, which has become a trap.

In two hours hours huntsman spoke on Little Round Top, the main place of fighting on July 2nd. It was attended by the most famous of conservation Chamberlain left flank of the Union forces in Gettsburg film. Nobody knows what CSA forces under Oates woke up at three in the morning and went through twenty-five miles, before taking up at 7:30. Prem & # 39; -Minister They also went on a big round top, because they thought that the flank to be there. This does not diminish the courage of the 20th Maine, but puts things in perspective.

Before this started intense battles in the garden The Peach Orchard, Wheatfield and Devil & 34; with 34,000 CSA against 33,000 US. At nightfall, both sides suffered terrible losses. Ranger was excellent and stayed to answer many questions.

Back on the battlefield today. We drove through the Confederate lines on Seminary Ridge. We were amazed the number of victims of several regiments, while others are much smaller. They were held in reserve.

After a hearty lunch, we met a ranger at the foot of the cemetery ridge of the Union line and talked. He told us that CSR reached the ridge on the second day of battle, but fell back through the field, when it became dark. Fatalities on the second day of the battle on July 2 were the largest of the three days of fighting. He also said that Emmitsburgskaya road that ran in front of us, was a sunken road. I do not understand why CSR is not just stepped on the road, falling under the guise of destroying the board, lifting the strengthening of the night and then go on the attack the following morning. Instead of having to go on the field a3 / 4 mile, all that is needed to do was to charge a couple of hundred yards. The result could be different.

Standing on the ridge and look on the fields – an amazing sight. Ranger said that the third day of the picket was typical of battlefields. None of the murder scene, which we have seen, it was not like this vast area. Some of them were wide open with a small vagalnastsyu in topography like Malvern Hill in the battle for seven days or Hit-chemical Kennevz on the mountain, GA. Even Antyetam, the bloodiest single battle was fought by rolling areas. Manasas were first and second, Kantslersvil, Desert, Spotsylvania and Petersburg. The third day Gettysburga was wide open. The only place where you could hide, was on a flooded road. Fences were still, and the soldiers had to climb over them on both sides to continue the attack. With 12,000 men who walked through the field, only 200 made their way through the wall on the crest of Cemetery.

The consequence was that the CSA retreated across descendant, leaving their wounded in the field. Many who have suffered when they were abandoned for three or four days before the Union came to take care of them. During this time came the storm, and the rain came down two days, making the field mud with thousands of wounded and dying people and hundreds of horses. These things are not written in our history books.

Close to Gettysburgam is stable under the name Gannaverskaya farm for horses. This is not a small town operation, but it is home to more than 1,800 ordinary horses. It touches and rhythms of the racing world. Some of them have sirev 12,000 dollars for the execution, with no guarantee. Their dance cards full, 157 mares waiting for them. It is 1884000 dollars a year. Hey, man, this is some studmuffin.

Hannover – the next town, named after Hanover, Germany, from which came many of its inhabitants. The Civil War claimed him that cavalry units Kirkpatryk and Koster deprived unit ZheB Stewart of the battle that took place twenty-five miles.

Our final stop was the country bears Boyd, to the south of our camp Business 15. Located in a huge barn on four floors of bears of all sizes and in looking for clothes at home children young and old. If you feel so inclined, you fill your own bear with colored beads representing different traits desirable in a loving companion. In other areas, there are clothes that any proper bear to wear for any occasion. Entrance fee is not obtained, but a few can & # 39; to go without relegating home a new friend.

I eat a large breakfast in Moose lodge in the center of Gettysburga. Then we finally took the walking tour or the city itself. We have seen how the railway station Lincoln arrived November 19, 1863 to participate in the dedication of the National Cemetery. We visited the house where he stayed for the night, which was the owner of Mr Willis, who was responsible for the creation of a cemetery. One of the houses really caught our attention. In the attic there was a small window from which the archers did arrows at the soldiers, retreating. They were also fired, and there are still more than a hundred holes in the wall in the corner of the house.

We went to the Eastern battlefield where ZheBshtuart was to attack the rear of the Union army at the cemetery ridge. He spent all of July 3, repulsing the attacks of generals. Greg and Koster.

School, drugs and gangs in Pennsylvania – it gets better, but it's still a challenge

Traveling to the United States, I see the good, the bad and the ugly. Sometimes you think you are looking for a pleasant place, but if you stop to talk to people, they tell you otherwise. Then at other times and in other places you see that you think that is destroyed and outside the city, but the city is alive and is alive with the spirit of community.

Not long ago I went to Pennsylvania and reported what he had seen. Indeed, I had seen some problems, but you just feel it and could not know exactly whether it is good or bad. Later, when I wrote about the area, someone contacted me and told me about a couple of other people in the area said curtly. Here's what he had to say:

They live in an area that can be called a tale of 3 cities. I work from Bethlehem, the town, founded in Moravia in 1740, and, of course, the home of Bethlehem Steel. I graduated from Moravian College in 1966 and taught at the Bethlehem school district 1967-1999 years and has been a real estate agent since 2001. Soon Sands casino to capture amazing city. Nobody is quietly confident that will happen. Then I have the PA in the West of the city center, and some compare it with hell hole and death. The school district is a mess, and the principal reason for the new people do not move. The administration is counting on each group in the city. In the East, we Easton, a border town with New Jersey. When I was growing up and in college, it was a nice city – Lafayette College there. This is one of three places where it was first read the Declaration of Independence. It turned out that this is already on the way back, but not so now, as gangsters, drugs, krypsy, blood money from the cash-boys, prostitution. Nobody wants to do nothing. Even the surrounding countryside, was once a very rural, it is now littered with crimes in the first place, dominoes and cars. We even have two girls, who hold the banks. But still located between Philly and New York, we have a hot area. Only good Lord knows how long.

We all have to work hard to make our cities are safe and beautiful, and all of our responsibility to the community, if we want them to be safe. If we do not act, we are involved in the problem and does not help in the decision. In this coming year, I want you to consider this and done their part. Make it something to ponder in 2008.